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Milestones

DEUTZ and Liebherr plan cooperation

DEUTZ AG and the Liebherr Machines Bulle S.A. have agreed the cornerstones of a cooperation. As part of this cooperation, Liebherr intends to hand over the global sales and service rights for diesel engines in various applications from 200 to 700 kW to DEUTZ AG. These engines are developed for the EU emission level Stage V, US Tier 4, China IV and EU Stage IIIA and thus correspond to the necessary exhaust gas regulations.

In this way, DEUTZ can perfectly complement its product portfolio and intends to distribute these engines under its own brand to its customers – also via its own network of dealers. In addition, it is planned for DEUTZ to receive exclusive rights for the production of a Liebherr 9-litre engine in China.

DEUTZ and Liebherr reaffirm their long and successful cooperation with this Green Paper.

DEUTZ engines are Stage V ready

With its “Stage V ready” seal, DEUTZ is the first engine manufacturer to promise its customers engines that comply with the EU emission directive Stage V which is applicable from 2019. The DEUTZ TCD Stage IV engine generation already has the necessary exhaust after-treatment systems including diesel particulate filter that are needed to comply with the main requirements of the directive. DEUTZ has developed, tested, and built the necessary components over the years and built up extensive know-how. Due to its series experience, DEUTZ is thus able to offer its customers secure and reliable technology. Also there will be no costly changes on the customers’ equipment to comply with the next emission stage, because the constructional requirements and the design of the engines remain identical.

Market introduction of the compact engines TCD 2.9 and TCD 3.6

DEUTZ presented a newly developed generation of engines for the construction industry at Bauma 2010. The ultra compact series four-cylinder engine were developed specifically for the needs of the industry in the lower power range. Through the implementation of a customer-oriented component system for optional add-on components, the engines offer more flexible installation options and significantly lower installation and operating costs.

Building on the foundation of the legendary DEUTZ 2011 series, which remains in production for the previous emission level, the newly developed TCD 2.9 and TCD 3.6 already comply with the new exhaust emissions standard IV.

DEUTZ launches joint venture in China

DEUTZ AG and FAW Jiefang Automotive Co., Ltd., which is based in Changchun, China (FAW), a wholly-owned subsidiary of China First Automobile Works Group Corp. (FAW Group), have today signed a contract to set up a joint venture to manufacture and sell diesel engines. DEUTZ and FAW will each own a 50% stake in the joint venture, which will operate under the name of DEUTZ (Dalian) Engine Co., Ltd. (DEUTZ Dalian). DEUTZ will assume industrial leadership of the company and will invest the equivalent of EUR 60 million in the new company. The joint venture will be based in Dalian, a port city in the north-east of China with over 5.5 million inhabitants.

The contract is still subject to the usual approvals for transactions of this nature. The establishment of DEUTZ Dalian will considerably expand the co-operation that has already existed for over 10 years between DEUTZ and FAW Group. FAW will contribute to the joint venture particularly its new cutting-edge plant that manufactures licensed DEUTZ engines. Production commenced earlier this year. Its initial annual capacity as from 2007 will be 50,000 engines, and this could eventually be increased to 100,000 engines. It will manufacture engines with a capacity of between 4 and 7 litres that meet the current emission standards. The engines will be used in commercial vehicles and in industrial applications such as construction equipment and agricultural machinery. They will mainly be sold to international DEUTZ customers in Asia and to the FAW Group. The joint venture will also have sufficient capacity to manufacture a further 100,000 or so local engines for the FAW Group and the local Chinese market.

This investment is a tangible expression of the growth and internationalisation strategy being pursued by DEUTZ. The co-operation with FAW will also strengthen DEUTZ' position in the global commercial-vehicle segment. At the same time, DEUTZ Dalian will benefit from the expertise of DEUTZ AG in the industrial-engines market. After Cologne, the new site at Dalian will be DEUTZ' largest production facility, and the synergies from the production sites will improve the DEUTZ Group's cost base.

Gordon Riske, Chairman of the Management Board of DEUTZ AG, commented at the official signing of the contract in Changchun, China: "This joint venture presents a unique opportunity to increase our exposure in DEUTZ' largest regional growth market and, at the same time, to accelerate our growth in the market for 4- to 7-litre engines. FAW is also the ideal partner for us in our efforts to expand our strategic co-operations, and this will enable us to exploit new markets that have previously been covered by vehicle and equipment manufacturers with their own production facilities."

China First Automobile Works Group Corp. is the largest supplier in the Chinese commercial-vehicle market. It produces light, medium-sized and heavy trucks as well as buses. It also specialises in making cars.

DEUTZ sets standards and shapes the future

A weak domestic economy, a strong euro and international crises - not even DEUTZ is immune to such developments. However, the Cologne company is prepared. After the relaunch programme, the enterprise has come up with a new range of models, tighter production structures and strategic partners. In short, "the engine company" is relying on its strong roots, and is once more the company which was begun so successfully in 1864: a specialist in matters of engine technology.

For many, the Olympic motto will suffice - but DEUTZ can and will do more than just take part. Even the new sporting self-image of the Cologne company - "swifter, higher, stronger" - is a sign of an ambitious goal: If it's a matter of engines, then DEUTZ should be the first choice. Management and employees have tuned up the enterprise for this purpose, and successfully concluded a three-year relaunch programme. DEUTZ is now more flexible and faster than ever, and is achieving higher sales and better results. In the light of the globally strained market situation, that is anything but a matter of course. However, it is primarily a solid starting position for playing in the top league in future.

The enterprise is now bringing its original strength fully into play - its core competence as an engine manufacturer. Central importance is therefore given to innovative, custom-made products. It is not by chance that the "old hand" DEUTZ is a worldwide leader in this field: 140 years of experience of perfectly tuned commitment to customers - this is an accomplishment that is hard to beat. DEUTZ engines are custom-built: tailored to the actual application and engine power class, precisely attuned to the system, RPM requirements and emission limits. The right technology for every application, technically optimized, flexibly combinable and cost-effective for the customer - that is the motto for the future.

If you want to play in the top league, you need a strong team - and DEUTZ has it. If you've been through hard times, you knuckle down more readily, if you can make things happen again. The relaunch programme has not only reinvigorated production, but also the motivation of the employees. DEUTZ can build on a good mixture: "old stagers" and beginners, experts, inquiring minds, deep thinkers and fast movers. They all employ competence, ambition and creativity in the interests of their enterprise.

DEUTZ has systematically selected its strategic partners. In addition to Volvo and SAME DEUTZ-FAHR, the engine manufacturer has also won the largest Turkish tractor manufacturer: A joint venture with UZEL for the joint manufacturing of diesel engines in Turkey is becoming the lynchpin for the company in the Near and Middle East. With FAW, the largest Chinese commercial vehicle manufacturer has also come onboard. Until now, DEUTZ has delivered engines and know-how to China, but soon engines will also be manufactured there under licence.

The tough fitness programme of the past years has paid off. Offensively tackled quality improvements, rationalization of production, concentration on strong models and the consequent streamlining of structures have turned the DEUTZ enterprise into a fast-moving, versatile and flexible player. With the target expansion of its international cooperations, DEUTZ has found the right partners for its future as an independent engine manufacturer. With the same innovative strength as the founders of bygone days, today's team of engine specialists works at leading their market, focusing on customers and continually increasing the value of the enterprise.

DEUTZ - the engine company.

Taking up global challenges

A rapidly growing world population demands to be fed. But since the arable land on our planet is limited, it must be cultivated more intensively and sustainably. This gives agricultural engineering a key role. DEUTZ is seizing this challenge as an opportunity, and bringing "high tech" to the fields. To assure that it remains so in future, a further cooperation is established. DEUTZ and the Italian group SAME DEUTZ-FAHR extend their cooperation in the field of diesel engines and agricultural machinery.

In mid-2003, a further decisive building block for the independence of the engine specialist is slotted into place. The Italian agricultural machinery manufacturer SAME DEUTZ-FAHR Group and DEUTZ AG sign a cooperation agreement. With this agreement, the Cologne firm, which already has a strong partner in Volvo, becomes another main supplier of diesel engines - this time for tractors and harvesting machines. This development is no accident. Since 1995, SAME and DEUTZ have had a close relationship. In that year, the enterprise, headquartered in Treviglio near Milan, and one of the world's largest tractor manufacturers, takes over the agricultural machinery division DEUTZ-FAHR of the former Klöckner-Humboldt-DEUTZ AG. Since then, the Italian group has become one of the most important customers for agricultural engines from Cologne.

Its tradition brings it close to DEUTZ anyway. The founder of SAME, Francesco Cassani, who presented his first diesel-engined tractor in 1927 at the age of 21, was a fan of the inventor and self-made man Nicolaus August Otto. This continues to pay off today. In their strengthened cooperation, the Italians now also become the largest DEUTZ stakeholder. Undoubtedly, the encouraging growth rate of the Cologne firm despite the economic doldrums plays a significant role. In the first half of 2003, corporate profits are up by six percent over the previous year's period, to around 3.3 million euros. For the SAME Group, the participation in DEUTZ is a strategic decision of considerable importance. Future European threshold values for exhaust gas and noise emissions mean high investments in engine development. However, the quantity of engines built by SAME itself is too low to be able to continue producing profitably in future. The new cooperation solves that problem in the long term. Today, the prospect is that SAME DEUTZ-FAHR will completely discontinue producing its own engines in the medium term. For DEUTZ, this means an additional annual volume of around 25,000 agricultural engines. This cements still further the self-reliance of the engine specialist, and steels DEUTZ even against future challenges. This is because agricultural engineering is a global growth market of key importance.

Cooperation safeguards independence

Those who seek to assert themselves in the international market in times of increasing globalization require strong partners. DEUTZ AG relies on partnerships, and forges a close collaboration with the vehicle and engineering group Volvo. The Cologne enterprise thus becomes a main supplier of engines in the important 4 to 7-litre range to the Swedish manufacturer. Simultaneously, new developments are initiated.

The cooperation with the Swedish vehicle and engineering group Volvo is sealed in October 1998. DEUTZ, as governed by the agreement, will become a main manufacturer of medium-sized diesel engines to its new Scandinavian partner in the coming years. In addition: Both enterprises will collaborate closely in the future in the development of diesel engines in the 4 to 7-litre range. To emphasize the importance and long term nature of this cooperation Volvo participates with a ten per cent share in the subscribed capital of DEUTZ AG.

DEUTZ supplies more than 100 prototype engines to Volvo during the intensive planning and project years between 1999 and 2001. In 2002 the series production begins: Volvo off highway products and equipment in the displacement range of four to seven litres will be equipped with Volvo engines from the collaboration manufactured by DEUTZ. In 2003, the delivery volume to the Swedish group already exceeds 19,000 engines. Continued clear growth is forecast for the coming years. Otto's vision and innovation continue to motivate the engineers of DEUTZ and Volvo even in the 21st century. This is noticeable, for example, in the joint development of a new engine for commercial vehicles. Full speed ahead, the partners are carefully devising a power unit with the specially developed fuel injection system, DEUTZ Common Rail. The new diesel engine is currently undergoing a rigorous testbench cycle.

The unrivalled all-rounder

A new engine class sets the benchmark. For the first time ever, DEUTZ delivers a power plant with an integrated cooling system. Oil not only ensures the correct lubrication - now it even keeps the running temperature under control. In 1988, production of the 1011 series begins, and twelve years later, the unit with the number 500,000 rolls off the conveyor. Today, it is one of the best-selling industrial engines of its class, customizable for a wide variety of applications.

From 1988 onwards, DEUTZ delivers the new 1011 engine series. For the first time, its integrated cooling system uses oil/air cooling instead of water cooling. This is a magnificent accomplishment of the engineering office. Only a slightly increased quantity of oil is necessary to lubricate the engine and also keep it constantly at a safe operating temperature even at different loads. The "side-effect" of this cooling method is equally persuasive: The noise level is considerably reduced. A compact engine design and numerous power output points round off the picture. In short: With the 1011 series, DEUTZ offers a customized product. The type of cooling and the power range make this series unique in the world market.

One year after this production launch, DEUTZ celebrates its 125th anniversary. On this historic date, the enterprise does not simply look back at its long and proud tradition. It is also investing boldly in its own future. In June 1993, the new motorworks in Cologne-Porz officially begins its operations. It is one of the most modern of its kind in the world, making it the right place for the assembly of the successful 1011 series. With a volume of around 600 million deutschmarks, it is also the largest single investment in the history of the Klöckner-Humboldt-DEUTZ (KHD) corporation. Seven years later, again the success of the development of engines with oil/air cooling is proven. The 500,000th unit rolls off the production line. The 1011 series becomes a bestseller.

Cool heads rely on the air principle

Engines certainly need to be robust, reliable and durable when they power oilrigs in the desert of Bahrain or pumps at the Arctic Circle. Since 1944, DEUTZ has been equal to these demands for power plant technology. Mass-production of the air-cooled diesel engine begins in that year. Its simple construction principle makes it highly successful - and its manufacturer, DEUTZ AG, becomes the world's largest vendor of this engine technology.

The DEUTZ development team requires only two years. In 1944, the first diesel engines with air cooling succeed in rolling off the production line. Initially devleoped for military purposes, the engines are able to weather the extreme heat of the desert regions as well as the intense cold of the Arctic Circle. Its new air cooling makes the DEUTZ diesel power plant robust and durable.

But mass production of the air-cooled diesel engines begins not until a few years later. Production at both sites succumbs to the severe destruction in the winter of 1944/45. By the end of World War II, not much remains of the Cologne plant - it is 74 per cent destroyed. In spite of everything, confidence does not falter. The reconstruction begins with great vigour. The Allies authorize DEUTZ to bring back machine tools which had been evacuated from Germany during the war years. DEUTZ is permitted to manufacture mining equipment and, by 1946, even 500 tractors. Three years later, diesel engines are once again rolling off the DEUTZ production lines. Even the air-cooled versions return to mass production.

Five years after the war ended, production has almost returned to normal levels. 60 per cent of the buildings are reusable, and the now 13,000 employees turn out 40,000 engines with a total power of around 1.5 million HP. 10,000 tractors and 6,000 commercial vehicles leave the workshops in Cologne and Ulm. The first apprentices end their training, and the first issue of the "Factory Review" is published. The attainment of an annual turnover of 300 million deutschmarks represents a return to an encouraging level of business.

1951 is a quite exceptional year in the history of DEUTZ. The Otto engine, the "forefather" of almost all combustion engines, celebrates its 75th anniversary. In addition, the diesel tractor bearing the production number 50,000 rolls off the line. At the same time, production of the highly successful F1M414 water-cooled diesel tractor is discontinued. 19,000 units have been sold. This is linked to the decision that the power plants of all DEUTZ tractors are to be exclusively air-cooled in future. In 1954, DEUTZ builds its one hundred thousandth air-cooled diesel engine. 35 years later, the number of units sold crosses the four million threshold.

From Brasil to Lake Baikal

Trucks with all-wheel drive, buses for commuter and long-distance routes, rapid fire brigade response. From 1936 onwards, with the takeover of C.D. Magirus, DEUTZ has also been present in the fast-growing commercial vehicle market. The advantages of the products coming out of Cologne and Ulm spread with the same speed - in fact the news spreads worldwide. Even in distant Moscow the benefits of Magirus-Deutz vehicles are valued.

With the takeover of Ulm-based C.D. Magirus AG in 1936, DEUTZ makes its grand entry into the commercial vehicle business. The enterprise's already wide product range now not only encompasses fire brigade vehicles, trucks and custom all-wheel-drive vehicles for military use. The new Ulm factory also begins manufacturing buses used for commuter and long-distance routes. The omnibus quickly develops into a serious competitor for the railways and trams. It gives a performance boost to the commuter transportation systems of large cities like Hamburg, Munich and Berlin. The demand is considerable. DEUTZ obtains orders from the Amazon to the Amur.

The largest individual order in the company's history is achieved by DEUTZ 42 years later. It delivers 10,000 trucks to the former Soviet Union. From 1974 onwards, this mighty fleet is primarily used in a gigantic construction project in the USSR: the BaikaI-Amur Mainline (BAM). This railway line, 1950 miles long, links the western Baikal region to the southeastern border with China. The benefit of this costly prestige project is still disputed today - but not so the trucks. Some of the vintage trucks made by Magirus-Deutz are still on the roads of Siberia some 30 years later, despite the severest frost.

The hearts of vintage truck fans are warmed by the sight of another bestseller of times gone by - the Magirus-DEUTZ Saturn II. Its air suspension allows it to lower its chassis at the stop - a comfort that would become standard only decades later with kneeling buses. From 1958 onwards, aside from the Cologne public transport services, only the Hamburg Hochbahn purchases 535 city buses and 130 express buses of this type. DEUTZ is occasionally able to increase its market share in Germany to 15 per cent. However, some rather unusual designs are also delivered. In 1951, for example, the O3500 - a bus with the chassis of a truck - comes onto the market. The air-cooled, double-axled vehicle with its round "alligator" mouth has a 90 HP diesel engine and is nine metres long. It is thus best suited for furniture transportation, among other things. Even those seeking adventure in distant lands rely on Magirus-DEUTZ. Today, desert travellers sometimes still speak enthusiastically about the legendary multitalented vehicles with all-wheel drive. In 1980, the enterprise separates from the vehicle sector. From then on, as a specialist in small-scale production, DEUTZ delivers engines to commercial vehicle manufacturers worldwide.

DEUTZ brings dynamism to agricultural engineering

At the start of the last century, farmers often still use horses as their harvesting equipment. Sometimes the gigantic steam-powered traction engine plough can be seen on a few fields. But 1 HP is not always enough, and a machine is too expensive. In 1926, DEUTZ launches a true alternative on the market: the MTH 222. As the first mass-produced DEUTZ diesel tractor, it clearly makes work more convenient and agriculture more efficient. Even today, DEUTZ remains committed to the same goals.

The first practical alternative to the horse or steam traction engine is built by DEUTZ as early as 1919. This "trekker" is equipped with a picker arm and even a cable winch, with which ploughs, carts and logs can be pulled, even under difficult ground conditions. The vehicle produces 40 horsepower; however, it is not so easy to handle: around 4.40 metres long, 1.80 metres wide and 2.70 metres high. The developers consequently take their time, plugging away for six years on technical innovations and refinements. The results justify their efforts. From 1926 onwards, DEUTZ AG starts mass-producing the first diesel tractor. The MTH 222 has a frame mode of construction, and possesses a two-speed gearbox, chain drive and vaporization cooling. 14 horsepower lurks within its recumbent one-cylinder four-stroke diesel engine.

The performance and technology of the MTH 222, of which 330 units were sold, are highly impressive. The power plant - originally planned as a self-propelled drive for stationary work machines - not only ensures a marked facilitation of work, but also means that, with this diesel tractor, farmers are able to exploit their area under cultivation with significantly higher efficiency.

In the meanwhile, DEUTZ is working on improving the efficiency of its engines still further. In 1929, the new MTZ series, including the model 220 with 30 HP, is introduced to the market. Two years later, this design is awarded the silver medal of the German Agricultural Society. The enterprise has good reason to rejoice anyway. Business is booming. Up to 1936 alone, 2,165 units of the MTZ 320 model are sold. That the purchasers principally hail from the agricultural sector is hardly surprising. But who could have guessed that DEUTZ tractors would even, for example, power the cars in Cologne's Shrove Monday procession?

The triumphant progress of automatic ignition

When mass production of diesel engines begins in 1907, new markets and fields of application open up to DEUTZ AG. Having already refined its own diesel engines over the years, the enterprise is in an outstanding position, when the patent held by Rudolf Diesel expires. DEUTZ is immediately able to offer a comprehensive range of automatic-ignition engines. The payoff continues to this day: There are currently around 1.3 million DEUTZ diesel engines in use around the world - from the deserts to the Arctic Circle.

The Deutz gas engine factory has been manufacturing diesel engines since 1897. Its basis is a licence agreement with the Augsburg engineering factory (now called MAN) and Krupp. However, from 1898 onwards, the factory starts developing its own diesel engines. Three years later, DEUTZ terminates the licence agreement to concentrate more intensively on its own diesel engine construction projects. This approach quickly pays dividends. On 28 February 1907, the patent for the diesel process held by Rudolf Diesel and the MAN forerunner expires. The opportunity is immediately seized, because the know-how had existed for a long time. On 1 March 1907, DEUTZ AG, with around 3,500 employees, begins the mass production of diesel engines. From the start, the constructors offer a comprehensive range of engines.

The largest automatic-ignition engines to emerge from the forge in the Deutz district of Cologne produce an impressive 400 horsepower. Energy and transport - generators, pumps, and marine propulsion - are the central fields of application of the engines. In 1911, DEUTZ introduces the first mass-produced compressorless diesel engine. In 1914, the 50th anniversary of the company is celebrated in Deutz: The limited-liability company now employs 3,300 shop floor workers and 400 salaried employees, manufacturing engines with a total power of around 90,000 HP.

In 1921, the VM Series (short for "Viertakt-Motor": four-stroke engine) with airless direct fuel injection hits the market - and becomes an overnight sensation. Its brilliance lies particularly in its extremely low fuel consumption, even under partial load. Until today, the specific fuel consumption value of 168 grammes per HP per hour remains exemplary. What is more, the direct-injection engine from DEUTZ quickly becomes the benchmark for emissions quality. In 1924, the so-called precombustion chamber process for fast-running four-stroke diesel engines goes into high-volume production.

Four strokes that move the world

When Nicolaus August Otto perfects his four-stroke engine in 1876, little can he realize how important his invention would remain to this day. Almost all combustion engines, irrespective of the fuel they use, operate according to Otto's principle. Our modern way of life is unimaginable without these four strokes. An uninterruptible power supply in the operating theatre, reliable data transfer around the world, fast and efficient grain harvesting, robust long-distance coaches and powerful tugboats in ports… The words that appear today in the vehicle registration certificate of every petrol automobile attract hardly any attention: "Otto engine".

A rather insignificant working diagram of an experimental engine serves as the "birth certificate" of the Otto engine. In Cologne on 9 May, 1876, Nicolaus August Otto perfects his four-stroke engine with compressed loading, suitable for all types of fuels and applications. The machine, still powered by coal gas, produces 3 HP at 180 revolutions per minute - and puts us on the road to a motorized world. Things now move ahead in rapid succession. In 1877, the four-stroke process is protected by the world-renowned patent DRP 532. In the very same year, the "Gasmotoren-Fabrik Deutz AG" starts the mass production of the four-stroke engine. The Technical Director of the company founded in 1872 is Gottlieb Daimler, and head of engine construction is Wilhelm Maybach. The four-stroke engine is effectively marketed with the slogan "Otto's new engine". At the same time, the international business powers up to full speed. The new DEUTZ power units are thus built and sold in England as well as the USA, sometimes under licence, sometimes by its own subsidiary companies. The possible applications of the engines are many and varied. For example, in 1880, on the occasion of the cathedral completion ceremony and to the astonishment of the residents of Cologne, the magnificent building is illuminated from the outside for the very first time. The arc lamps draw their power from 2-cylinder gas engines from the DEUTZ company.

The fact that the engines were still dependent on the public gas supply network is still a problem Otto wants to solve. The machinery is stationary because it requires a pilot light like every street lamp. This makes its use in mobile machines like vehicles impossible. This changes in 1884, when Otto introduces his low-voltage magneto ignition. The electrical ignition system allows engines to use fluid fuels for the first time. Otto's development is adopted by Robert Bosch and becomes the basis of his life's work. In 1891, Nicolaus August Otto, the inventor of the four-stroke combustion engine, dies at the age of only 59 years.

However, this sad event does not put the brake on technical progress. In 1892, DEUTZ starts to manufacture locomotives with combustion engines. The first prototype is delivered to the Radebeul Chemical Factory. In 1896, the world's first mining locomotive comes into being. Only two years later, DEUTZ presents the first diesel engine of its own construction. Eugen Langen, the former cofounder of the enterprise, does not live to see it. He died in October 1895.

The origin of DEUTZ AG

The vision and tireless experimentation of Nicolaus August Otto revolutionizes the world. His development of the ingenious four-stroke engine is the foundation of global motorization and the freedom of movement of today's society. One of the first great milestones is reached in 1864. Together with the engineer Eugen Langen, the inventor founds the factory "N.A. Otto & Cie." Their small workshop in the old part of town of Cologne is the world's first engine forge, and the origin of today's DEUTZ AG.

Nicolaus August Otto knows that journeys by horse-drawn carriage on country roads can be a protracted affair. As a salesman and commercial traveller, he is often on the road. It is an uncomfortable and time-consuming business. With his keen interest in technology, Otto decides to change all that. For long, he has been thinking about how to make a journey for instance from Cologne to Aachen faster. In 1860, probably on one of his many journeys, he hears of the invention of Frenchman Etienne Lenoir. His coal-gas combustion engine arouses Otto's curiosity. He forms the idea to construct a power machine himself which "can be used easily and practically for the locomotion of vehicles on country roads, as well as being of considerable benefit to light industry," as Otto writes in 1861 in his first patent application to the Royal Prussian Ministry of Trade. The patent on a spirit carburettor, which promises to make the engine independent of the public gas network, is denied. However, Otto now concentrates his efforts on the world of engines.

The Cologne mechanic Michael Zons builds him a model of the Lenoir machine. Otto experiments to discover the effects of a compressed gas-air mixture himself. He promptly begins experimenting with a four-stroke engine of his own construction. The principle of the four-stroke aspiration, compression, combustion and exhaust seems to be as brilliant as it is revolutionary. However, the engineer is unsuccessful in controlling the violent ignitions in his four cylinders. Consequently, after a brief running time, all that remains of the engine is its wrecked fragments. Otto therefore explores new avenues, and builds and tests his first "atmospheric gas-powered machine" in 1863. Finally, he sees he is on the right track. Unfortunately though - despite his genius - money is running low. The inventor has almost reached the end. Yet someone is interested in the gas-powered machine and finally becomes convinced. Eugen Langen, an engineer working in the Cologne sugar trade, invests in Otto's ideas and capabilities.

On 31 March 1864, Otto and Langen found the company "N.A. Otto & Cie." The former provides the know-how, while the latter contributes money and particularly entrepreneurial experience. They launch the "first engine factory in the world" - the origin of today's DEUTZ AG. In their workshop in Servasgasse, Cologne, the history of an unparalleled enterprise begins.